Site Planning and Design Handbook (2024)

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Population and the urban future Source : Time-Saver Standards for Urban Design Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file with the Library of Congress

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Time-Saver Standards for Urban Design Sustainable design Fig. 1. Center for Regenerative Studies

Shai Rubia

S ustainable design recognizes that human civilization is an integral part of the natural resources upon which all biological life of the planet depends. This places environmental understanding at the core of design of urban places and cities, conceived as part of their natural context that must be preserved and improved if the human community is to survive. The term sustainability has emerged in the past several decades as a broad set of principles that address economic, social and environmental development at all scales, local, regional and global. (See Box A The concept of sustainability on the following page). Sustainable design dramatically enlarges the range of issues and opportunities that the design professions must address, in order to: • preserve biological diversity and environmental integrity, • contribute to the health of air, water, and soils, • incorporate design and construction that reflect bioregional climatic conditions, and • reduce and eliminate the deteriorating impacts of human use. Sustainable design requires an understanding of environmental consequences of natural system requirements of the built environment. The Center for Regenerative Studies, California Polytechnic Institute, Pomona, CA (Figs. 1 and 2) is an example where an arid warm local climate has been impacted positively by construction of on-site water collection and water cleansing (through constructed wetlands) Summary Sustainable design represents a set of principles of planning, design, and construction that endeavor to preserve and improve the environmental health of people and contingent natural systems. Sustainable design influence site design, rainwater harvesting, aquifer recharge, waste prevention and reclamation, and improved quality of air, water and vegetation by elimination of toxic chemicals. This article provides the context for sustainable design at the site, land planning and urban scale, with selected details and examples.

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Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering

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Transport Handbook

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Urban Transportation Systems


Life in cities-i.e., in organized human settlements, which are mostly referred to as communities in this book-is possible only if people have mobility 1 on a daily basis-the ability to move around so that they can do what they have to do or like to do. One characterization of a city is that it consists of specialized, frequently clustered, activities that perform discrete functions. Residences are separate from workplaces, major shopping is concentrated in identifiable centers, and larger entertainment and relaxation facilities are found at specific locations. They have to have accessibility. 2 Unlike in a village, very few of these destinations are reachable on foot; at least, they tend not to be within a convenient walking distance. The large ancient and medieval cities were actually conglomerations of neighborhoods in which daily life could take place 1 Mobility is here defined as the ability of any person to move between points in a community by private or public means of transportation. The usual obstacles to mobility are long distances, bad weather, steep hills (all constituting friction of space), but, above all, the unavailability of services, high fares, and possibly other forms of exclusion. 2 Accessibility is here defined as the possibility of reaching any activity, establishment , or land use in a community by people (or by conveyances of goods or information) who have a reason to get there. It is a measure of the quality and operational effectiveness of a community.

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Foundation Engineering Handbook

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Raymundo Cordero

Piping stress analysis is a discipline which is highly interrelated with piping layout (Chap. B3) and support design (Chap. B5). The layout of the piping system should be performed with the requirements of piping stress and pipe supports in mind (i.e., sufficient flexibility for thermal expansion; proper pipe routing so that simple and economical pipe supports can be constructed; and piping materials and section properties commensurate with the intended service, temperatures, pressures, and anticipated loadings). If necessary, layout solutions should be iterated until a satisfactory balance between stresses and layout efficiency is achieved. Once the piping layout is finalized, the piping support system must be determined. Possible support locations and types must be iterated until all stress requirements are satisfied and other piping allowables (e.g., nozzle loads, valve accelerations, and piping movements) are met. The piping supports are then designed (Chap. B5) based on the selected locations and types and the applied loads. This chapter discusses several aspects of piping stress analysis. The discussion is heavily weighted to the stress analysis of piping systems in nuclear power plants, since this type of piping has the most stringent requirements. However, the discussion is also applicable to the piping systems in ships, aircraft, commercial buildings, equipment packages, refrigeration systems, fire protection piping, petroleum

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Category: GOVERNANCE 1. Police Encounters: Supreme Court of India Guidelines

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